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Posts Tagged ‘statistics’

Measure or Metric? Six of One, Half Dozen of the Other?

Posted by Diane Kulisek on December 7, 2009

Here is another LinkedIn ‘Best Answer’.  Anshuman Tiwari, a Change Management and Business Excellence Professional within the Information and Technology Services industry and  an active member of the American Society for Quality in India, asked the following LinkedIn Question:

“How would you differentiate between Measure and Metric?  Measure and Metric are often used terms in Balanced Scorecard and the Baldrige framework. How would you explain the difference. Do you have any examples?”

Below is the answer I posted, which Anshuman rated as the ‘Best’ answer of six provided by LinkedIn Members:

“The only distinction that I think might be able to be made does not appear to be available in any of the literature I’ve checked. I’m basing this only upon my personal experience.

I would have to say that a measure is usually performed to gather information for later analysis or to assess conformance with a known specification.

Meanwhile, I would say that a metric is a collection of measurements performed consecutively over a period of time (or in relation to some other progressive scale) that reflects ongoing performance toward attainment of a desired goal or ultimate outcome. Some measures, however, may also appear in analysis of priority or importance with regard to attainment of a goal or may influence allocation of resources for ultimate attainment of a goal (such as might be the case for cumulative Pareto analysis or 80-20 Rule determinations).

In a nutshell, then, I would have to say that a measure tends to be tactical and a metric tends to be strategic.

It certainly should be defined somewhere, officially.”

This was not part of my LinkedIn Answer, but below are the Google-derived definitions of ‘measure’:

Related phrases:   performance measure   unit of measure   made to measure   common measure   tape measure   oregon ballot measure 7   measure for measure   beyond measure   linear measure   how to measure a planet

Definitions of measure on the Web:

  • any maneuver made as part of progress toward a goal; “the situation called for strong measures”; “the police took steps to reduce crime”
  • how much there is or how many there are of something that you can quantify
  • bill: a statute in draft before it becomes law; “they held a public hearing on the bill”
  • measurement: the act or process of assigning numbers to phenomena according to a rule; “the measurements were carefully done”; “his mental measurings proved remarkably accurate”
  • standard: a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated; “the schools comply with federal standards”; “they set the measure for all subsequent work”
  • determine the measurements of something or somebody, take measurements of; “Measure the length of the wall”
  • meter: (prosody) the accent in a metrical foot of verse
  • quantify: express as a number or measure or quantity; “Can you quantify your results?”
  • musical notation for a repeating pattern of musical beats; “the orchestra omitted the last twelve bars of the song”
  • have certain dimensions; “This table surfaces measures 20inches by 36 inches”
  • measuring stick: measuring instrument having a sequence of marks at regular intervals; used as a reference in making measurements
  • evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of; “I will have the family jewels appraised by a professional”; “access all the factors when taking a risk”
  • a container of some standard capacity that is used to obtain fixed amounts of a substance
  • Measure is the second album from Matt Pond PA, released in 2000.
  • A jigger or measure is a bartending tool used to measure liquor, which is typically then poured into a cocktail shaker. It is named for the unit of liquid it typically measures, a 1.5 fluid ounce (~44 ml) jigger or shot. …

If we narrow our search for a definition to ‘performance measure’, we’ll find that ‘measure’ and ‘metric’ are terms used interchangeably.  There are subsearches provided for strategic performance measures and for tactical performance measures, however.  Here are the Google-based ‘performance measure’ definitions:

Related phrases:   technical performance measure   strategic performance measure   tactical performance measure   performance measure/indicator

Definitions of performance measure on the Web:

So, for ‘tactical performance measure’ we have the following Google-based definition:

A yardstick or standard used to measure progress toward achieving a tactical objective; a measure of how well we are doing; an output measure or a …

And, for ‘strategic performance measure’ we have this:

A yardstick or standard used to measure progress toward achieving a strategic objective. a measure of how well we are doing; an outcome measure.

Hmmm….. those look…. suspiciously… like the exact same definition.  Let’s see what the Google-based definitions are for ‘metric’:

Related phrases:   metric ton   metric system   metric space   metric structure   metric conversions   metric units   metric tonne   routing metric   euclidean metric

Definitions of metric on the Web:

  • metric function: a function of a topological space that gives, for any two points in the space, a value equal to the distance between them
  • metric unit: a decimal unit of measurement of the metric system (based on meters and kilograms and seconds); “convert all the measurements to metric units”; “it is easier to work in metric”
  • system of measurement: a system of related measures that facilitates the quantification of some particular characteristic
  • measured: the rhythmic arrangement of syllables
  • Metric is a Canadian New Wave/indie rock band. Originally formed in 1998 in New York City, they are currently based in Toronto, Ontario, Montreal …
  • In differential geometry, the notion of a metric tensor can be extended to an arbitrary vector bundle. …
  • In general relativity, the metric tensor (or simply, the metric) is the fundamental object of study. It may loosely be thought of as a generalization of the gravitational field familiar from Newtonian gravitation. …
  • A metric is a standard unit of measure, such as meter or mile for length, or gram or ton for weight, or more generally, part of a system of parameters, or systems of measurement, or a set of ways of quantitatively and periodically measuring, assessing, controlling or selecting a person, process …
  • A measure for something; a means of deriving a quantitative measurement or approximation for otherwise qualitative phenomena (esp. …
  • metrics – prosody: the study of poetic meter and the art of versification
  • Metrics is a property of a route in computer networking, consisting of any value used by routing algorithms to determine whether one route should perform better than another (the route with the lowest metric is the preferred route). …
  • Measurable element of a service, process or function. The real value of metrics is seen in their change over time. Reliance on a single metric is not advised, especially if it has the potential to affect User behaviour in an undesirable way.
  • A standard of measurement. Software metrics are the statistics describing the structure or content of a program. A metric should be a real objective measurement of something such as number of bugs per lines of code.
  • A general term describing a measurable value available from a particular system or service (see also Counters). The metrics that are available depend on the monitor type and configuration of the system. …
  • A standard for measurement.

Defining the word ‘metric’ seems to use the term ‘measure’, a lot.  I dunno.  What do YOU think the differences are between a metric and a measure?

While you’re pondering that, feel free to download copies of my presentation handout about Quality Metrics and Dashboards from the CAPAtrak Website or enjoy the free downloadable Simple Dashboard and Balanced Scorecard Templates.


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Process Control for Sports Enthusiasts

Posted by Diane Kulisek on June 4, 2007

Hit the TargetDo your eyes glaze over when somebody starts talking about Standard Deviation, Control Limits, Frequency Distribution, Histograms or <gasp> Six Sigma? You’re not alone. Statistics are probably among the most despised business tools in the business bucket. Samuel Clemens (a.k.a. Mark Twain) has been quoted as having said: “There are liars, DAMNED liars…. and…. Statisticians.” Has anybody ever really had anything nice to say about statistics… or those who use them?

Well, fear not. All one need do to relieve the pain of statistics is turn to the sports world. You may not be a baseball card enthusiast but player stats are prominent features on the back of each card. You might have been handling statistics with gleeful abandon since you were a kid. Team and player statistics are flashed at us from television screens during every sports event I’ve ever observed, as well. Sitting behind home base at a recent Dodger game (yes, I’m a Dodger fan), the scoreboard was one of my favorite diversions while waiting for things to sort themselves out otherwise on the playing field. What was there? Statistics!

There are some other great games that each of us may pursue on a sporting level that bring home the whole concept of process control and statistics for what may offer a much more personal understanding. Do you bowl? Play for the company soccer team or baseball league? How about golf? Play that? My personal favorite, lately, is archery. Because I know not too many people “do” archery, I’ll use that as my example (so as to avoid too much undue criticism from fellow enthusiasts).

I studied archery for about three years as an undergrad in college… which was too long ago for me to admit publicly. While recently chatting with a friend, another engineer, we agreed that he would exchange his fencing lessons for my archery lessons and we would both be able to enjoy these old and new diversions together. His enthusiasm for archery proved to outweigh mine for fencing, however, so archery is what we’ve done the most of (so far).

I’ve been enjoying the outdoor setting for target practice and the diverse group of intelligent people pursuing archery as their sport. An added plus is the fact that more national archery champions have come from our community than any other in the United States (you can check out my club at When I say that the instructors involved with this sport have turned it into a process with parameters as carefully defined and controlled as one might expect for manufacture of a precision aircraft or life-saving medical device, it might be an understatement.

While I have been participating in archery sport for a pleasantly healthful break from my mind-bending weekday work, my companion is there to WIN. I have been watching as he learns which eye is dominant for his best aim, how many inches between arrows constitute an effective grouping, how high to hold his elbow, how far back to move his scapula, where to put his feet relative to the firing line, how far apart and what angle the feet should be at relative to his shoulders, what angle to tilt his head at, and at what point on his face to anchor the bow string when he pulls it back with his arrow. And this was just the beginning. Then came which type of bow to buy (long bow, recurve, compound, take down recurve), a few progressive changes in what arrows to use (straight or helical fletchings, aluminum or carbon shaft, variations in length), what poundage pull to strive for (30 lbs, 35 lbs, 40 lbs), what attachments to consider for the bow (plunger, scope, stabilizer), how to hone the arrow rest most effectively to avoid deflection of the arrow as it passes through it, whether or not to use a bow sling, what type of arm guard, finger tab and quiver to use, how many inches should be between the bow riser and the string, how many twists to put into the string before attaching it to each end of the bow, the benefits of waxing the string…. you get the idea. This isn’t a hobby. This is science predicated upon process parametric trial and error that might most effectively be optimized by design of experiments and analysis of variance. In fact, that’s what I’ve been observing happen, although none of those doing it probably realizes that is what they’re doing. The reward is continually improving process control with reduced variation at performance levels that optimizes outcome. In other words, the target gets hit correctly more often. I’ve been tempted to whip out an X-bar and R chart a few times.

Some might think that the local archery club wins so many championships because it has more “natural talent” than other groups. Others might think that, by divine intervention, some of the local archers were just born to be champions. I would take another position and say… it helps that a bunch of the members are computer scientists and engineers with a pretty firm grasp of scientific method, if nothing else…. and that most are system-level thinkers.

Now…. how many of you have played with process control in relation to your sports? Golf game improving? Is it your skill that is improving or your understanding of the process? Did you identify and control a few new parameters for that great game… or was it just dumb luck? Does practice make perfect… or does it take a bit of thought to figure out what needs to change, as well? Are you focused on optimizing the long term inherent causes for process variation (like your height or vision, for instance) or mitigating the near term assignable causes for variation (where DID that wind come from, anyway)? Chances are, you are probably doing both.

SO… next time your eyes start to glaze over while considering what statistics to apply for optimization of a process within your organization…. think of golf, or archery, or any other sport…. go for the goal… aim for that mark….. and SCORE! May the force (of process control) be with you.

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